Language Construction, Tip of the Tongue, and Speech Errors
This is a very short clip from “Moment of Science” produced by Indiana Public Media that describes a basic two step retrieval process that may help explain tip-of-the-tongue experiences. Author: Barbara Bolz
Do Age-Related Increases in Tip-of-the-Tongue Experiences Signify Episodic Memory Impairments?
Tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs), in which a name is known but cannot be immediately retrieved from memory, can be a cause of concern if these experiences are viewed as a sign of memory decline. The current study was conducted to investigate the relation between age and TOT frequency, and the influence of episodic memory, which is the type of memory most often assessed to detect memory problems, on that relation. In a sample of adults, increased age was found to be associated with more TOTs across different types of materials, and additional analyses suggested that these relations between age and TOT frequency were not attributable to the use of different response criteria or to different amounts of knowledge. Because statistical control of a measure of episodic memory had little effect on the relation between age and TOT frequency, age-related increases in TOTs and age-related decreases in episodic memory appear to be at least partially independent phenomena. [Salthouse & Mandell (2013). Psychological Science, Epub ahead of print.]
- The “tip of the tongue” phenomenon [Brown & McNeill (1966) Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5(4): 325-337.]
- Subjective states associated with retrieval failures in Parkinson’s disease [Souchay & Smith (2013) Consciousness and Cognition, 22(3): 795-805.]
- Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states: retrieval, behavior, and experience [Schwartz & Metcalfe (2011) Memory & Cognition, 39(5): 737-749.]