Approximately 634,000 cases of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) are reported annually in the United States, with children ages 0-4 holding the highest reported rates of any age group. According to research findings, pediatric TBI survivors demonstrate a significantly increased risk for developing various behavioral problems, including increased aggression, impulsivity, hyperactivity, withdrawal, anxiety, and depression. The following resources focus on these observed behavioral characteristics, and how they relate to rehabilitation for pediatric TBI survivors.
Abstract: The effect of pediatric traumatic brain injury on behavioral outcomes: A systematic review (2013)
“AIM: To review systematically the empirical evidence on traumatic brain injury (TBI) during child-hood and subsequent behavioral problems. METHOD: An initial literature search with keywords ‘brain injury,’ ‘children,’ and ‘behavior’ was conducted using Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases. Ancestry was also used. Original research studies published between 1990 and February 2012 focusing on behavioral outcomes of children sustaining TBI from ages 0 to 18 years were included. RESULTS: Fifty studies, varying considerably in methodologies, were included in the review. Findings showed that up to 50% of brain-injured children are at risk for presenting with specific behavioral problems and disorders. These problems may emerge shortly or several years after injury and often persist and even worsen with time. These behavioral impairments appear to be moderated by the family environment. INTERPRETATION: Survivors of childhood TBI are at risk for developing and sustaining behavioral impairments. Stronger research is needed to identify cognitive and environmental factors that contribute to the onset and maintenance of these problems. Healthcare providers should ensure adequate follow-up and assessment of a child’s behavioral, social, and neurocognitive domains. Caregivers should be encouraged to provide positive environments and parenting styles, which may help reduce chronic behavioral problems after brain injury.”
[Li, l., & Liu, j. (2013). The effect of pediatric traumatic brain injury on behavioral outcomes: A systematic review. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55, 37-45.] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04414.x/full
(1) Neurorehabilitation of Pediatric TBI (Aug 2011)
b. Presented by Joelle Mast, PhD, MD, Chief Medical Officer at Blythedale Children’s Hospital. The aim of this webinar is to provide an overview of the epidemiology of pediatric TBI, classification of TBI, time course and recovery following TBI, spectrum of impairments, and neurorehabilitation.
(2) Management of Severe Pediatric TBI (Feb 2013)
b. Presented by P. David Adelson, MD, FACS, FAAP: “this presentation discusses the basic principles of age at injury and their considerations as they apply to clinical management will be reviewed. As well, the recommendations for the medical and surgical management as outlined in the evidence based document, the “Guidelines for the Acute Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents” by Adelson et al, 2003 will be reviewed.”
(3) Children’s Video on Head Injury: “A Hit on the Head and Where it Led” (Jan 2013)
b. Short film YouTube cartoon based on a popular Australian book about traumatic brain injury. Provides explanation of traumatic brain injury and related difficulties from a child’s perspective.
- Arnett, A. B., Peterson, R. L., Kirkwood, M. W., Taylor, H. G., Stancin, T., Brown, T. M., & Wade, S. L. (2013). Behavioral and cognitive predictors of educational outcomes in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19, 881-889. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8987620&fileId=S1355617713000635
- Cole, W. R., Gerring, J. P., Gray, R. M., Vasa, R. A., Salorio, C. F., Grados, M., ... & Slomine, B. S. (2008). Prevalence of aggressive behaviour after severe paediatric traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 22, 932-939. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699050802454808
- Ryan, N. P., Catroppa, C., Beare, R., Coleman, L., Ditchfield, M., Crossley, L., ... & Anderson, V. A. (2015). Predictors of longitudinal outcome and recovery of pragmatic language and its relation to externalizing behaviour after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Brain and language, 142, 86-95. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0093934X15000085
- Savage, R., Depompei, R., Tyler, J. & Lash, M. (2005). Paediatric traumatic brain injury: A review of pertinent issues. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 8, 92-103. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16089249
- Schwartz, L., Taylor, H. G., Drotar, D., Yeates, K. O., Wade, S. L., & Stancin, T. (2003). Long-term behavior problems following pediatric traumatic brain injury: Prevalence, predictors, and correlates. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28, 251-263. http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/4/251.short